Geographical Indications – GI Tags
GI Tags : Latest Update: Gucci Mushroom from Jammu and Kashmir is in the news as GI Tag is sought for it. It belongs to the agriculture sector; while there are a few others from the handicraft sector for which GI tags are sought for. Those are – Basohli Pashmina & Painting, Tweed fabric, Loi blankets from Kishtwar and Chikri craft. Hence, aspirants should know what is a GI Tag and what is its significance.
GI tag is the abbreviation of Geographical Indications tags in India. It came into force with effect from 15th September 2003. Darjeeling Tea was the first Indian product to get a GI tag. This article will discuss more such information on GI in detail.
Government has allotted GI Tags to Kashmir Saffron and Manipuri Black Rice recently.
GI tags to 4 new products from 3 different states in August 2019.
- Palani Panchamirtham in Palani Town, Tamil Nadu
- Tawlhlohpuan from Mizoram
- Mizo Puanchei from Mizoram
- Tirur Betel leaf from Kerala
Madhya Pradesh’s plea to put state’s basmati rice under Geographical Indication tag was recently dismissed.
List of GI Tags 2021
Note: The GI Tags 2021 will be updated here as and when announced for any products.
Various products from different states received GI tags in 2019-20 which includes Jeeraphool from Chhattisgarh, Himachali Kala Zeera, Kandhamal Haldi from Odisha, etc. the complete list of geographical indications tagged products for 2019-20 is given below:
GI Tags 2019-2020
|Kashmir Saffron||Agriculture||Jammu & Kashmir|
|Manipuri Black Rice||Food Stuff||Manipur|
|Kodaikanal Malai Poondu||Agricultural||Tamil Nadu|
|Palani Panchamirtham||Food Stuff||Tamil Nadu|
|Gulbarga Tur Dal||Agricultural||Karnataka|
|Tirur Betel Leaf (Tirur Vettila)||Agricultural||Kerala|
|Idu Mishmi Textiles||Handicraft||Arunachal Pradesh|
|Dindigul Locks||Manufactured||Tamil Nadu|
|Kandangi Saree||Handicraft||Tamil Nadu|
|Srivilliputtur Palkova||Food Stuff||Tamil Nadu|
State-Wise List of GI Tags in India
The GI tags allotted to the handicraft, agricultural, food or manufactured products are listed down below state-wise:
GI Tags 2019-2020
|Indian State||GT Tags|
|Andhra Pradesh||Srikalahasthi Kalamkari|
Budithi Bell & Brass Metal Craft
Andhra Pradesh Leather Puppetry
Uppada Jamdani Sarees
Mangalagiri Sarees and Fabrics
Dharmavaram Handloom Pattu Sarees And Paavadas
Udayagiri Wooden Cutlery
Durgi Stone Carvings
Allagadda Stone Carving
Guntur Sannam Chilli
Araku Valley Arabica Coffee
|Arunachal Pradesh||Idu Mishmi Textiles|
|Assam||Muga Silk of Assam|
Muga Silk of Assam (Logo)
Assam Karbi Anglong Ginger
Joha Rice of Assam
Applique (Khatwa) Work of Bihar
Sujini Embroidery Work of Bihar
Sikki Grass Products of Bihar
Applique (Khatwa) Work of Bihar (Logo)
Sikki Grass Products of Bihar (Logo)
Sujini Embroidery Work of Bihar(Logo)
Shahi Litchi of Bihar
Bastar Wooden Craft
Bastar Iron Craft
Agates of Cambay
Surat Zari Craft
Sankheda Furniture (Logo)
Kutch Embroidery (Logo)
Agates of Cambay (Logo)
Pethapur Printing Blocks
Gir Kesar Mango
|Himachal Pradesh||Kullu Shawl|
Kullu ShawL (Logo)
Himachali Kala Zeera
Himachali Chulli Oil
|Jammu & Kashmir||Kani Shawl|
Kashmir Paper Machie
Kashmir Walnut Wood Carving
Kashmiri Hand Knotted Carpet
Saffron (Mongra, Lachha, Guchhi)
|Jharkhand||Sohrai – Khovar Painting|
Channapatna Toys & Dolls
Mysore Rosewood Inlay
Mysore Traditional Paintings
Ganjifa Cards of Mysore
Sandur Lambani Embroidery
Mysore Silk (Logo)
Mysore Betel leaf
Coorg Green Cardamom
Kamalapur Red Banana
Bangalore Blue Grapes
Coorg Arabica Coffee
Chikmagalur Arabica Coffee
Bababudangiri Arabica Coffee
Gulbarga Tur Dal
Mysore Sandalwood Oil
Mysore Sandal soap
|Kerala||Tirur Betel Leaf (Tirur Vettila) |
Palakkadan Matta Rice
Alleppey Green Cardamom
Maddalam of Palakkad
Screw Pine Craft of Kerala
Brass Broidered Coconut Shell Crafts of Kerala
Cannanore Home Furnishings
Balaramapuram Sarees and Fine Cotton Fabrics
Central Travancore Jaggery
Wayanad Jeerakasala Rice A
Wayanad Gandhakasala Rice
Payyannur Pavithra Ring
Chendamangalam Dhoties & Set Mundu
Chengalikodan Nendran Banana
Kuthampully Dhoties & Set Mundu
Maddalam of Palakkad (Logo)
Brass Broidered Coconut Shell Craft of Kerala (Logo)
Screw Pine Craft of Kerala (Logo
Wayanad Robusta Coffee
Marayoor Jaggery (Marayoor Sharkara)
|Madhya Pradesh||Chanderi Sarees|
Leather Toys of Indore
Bagh Prints of Madhya Pradesh
Bell Metal Ware of Datia and Tikamgarh
Maheshwar Sarees & Fabrics
Bell Metal Ware of Datia and Tikamgarh (Logo)
Leather Toys of Indore (Logo)
Bagh Prints of Madhya Pradesh (Logo )
Jhabua Kadaknath Black Chicken Meat
Solapur Terry Towel
Nashik Valley Wine
Paithani Sarees and Fabrics
Ajara Ghansal Rice
Sindhudurg & Ratnagiri Kokum
Navapur Tur Dal
Beed Custard Apple
Jalna Sweet Orange
Jalgaon Bharit Brinjal
Dahanu Gholvad Chikoo
Marathwada Kesar Mango
Karvath Kati Sarees & Fabrics
Naga Tree Tomato
|Odisha||Kotpad Handloom fabric|
Konark Stone carving
Pipli Applique Work
Khandua Saree and Fabrics
Gopalpur Tussar Fabrics
Ganjam Kewda Rooh
Ganjam Kewda Flower
Dhalapathar Parda & Fabrics
Sambalpuri Bandha Saree & Fabrics
Bomkai Saree & Fabrics
Habaspuri Saree & Fabrics
Berhampur Patta (Phoda Kumbha) Saree & Joda
Orissa Pattachitra (Logo)
Blue Pottery of Jaipur
Molela Clay Work
Kathputlis of Rajasthan
Kota Doria (Logo)
Bagru Hand Block Print
Thewa Art Work
Molela Clay Work of Rajasthan (Logo)
Blue Pottery of Jaipur (Logo)
Kathputlis of Rajasthan (Logo)
|Tamil Nadu||Salem Fabric|
Coimbatore Wet Grinder
Temple Jewellery of Nagercoil
Thanjavur Art Plate
East India Leather
Salem Silk known as Salem Venpattu
Kovai Kora Cotton Sarees
Swamimalai Bronze Icons
Eathamozhi Tall Coconut
Virupakshi Hill Banana
Sirumalai Hill Banana
Pattamadai Pai (“Pattamadai Mat”)
Nachiarkoil Kuthuvilakku (“Nachiarkoil Lamp”)
Thanjavur Art Plate (Logo)
Swamimalai Bronze Icons (Logo)
Temple Jewellery of Nagercoil (Logo)
Mahabalipuram Stone Sculpture
Erode Manjal (Erode Turmeric)
Thirubuvanam Silk Sarees
Kodaikanal Malai Poondu
Kovilpatti Kadalai Mittai
Thanjavur Pith Works
Arumbavur Wood Carvings
|Tripura||Tripura Queen Pineapple|
Silver Filigree of Karimnagar
Nirmal Toys and Craft
Narayanpet Handloom Sarees
Pochampally Ikat (Logo)
|Uttar Pradesh||Allahabad Surkha Guava |
Lucknow Chikan Craft
Malihabadi Dusseheri mango
Banaras Brocades and Sarees
Hand Made Carpet of Bhadohi
Banaras Brocades and Sarees (Logo)
Moradabad Metal Craft
Saharanpur Wood Craft
Banaras Gulabi Meenakari Craft
Varanasi Wooden Lacquerware & Toys
Mirzapur Handmade Dari
Nizamabad Black Pottery
Banaras Métal Repoussé Craft
Varanasi Glass beads
Ghazipur Wall Hanging
Varanasi Soft Stone Jali Work
Chunar Balua Patthar
|West Bengal||Darjeeling Tea (word & logo)|
Santiniketan Leather Goods
Malda Laxman Bhog Mango
Khirsapati (Himsagar) mangoes
Malda Fazli Mango
Bankura Panchmura Terracotta Craft
Purulia Chhau Mask
Wooden Mask of Kushmandi
What is GI Tag?
A GI or Geographical Indication is a name or a sign given to certain products that relate to a specific geographical location or origins like a region, town or country.
Using Geographical Indications may be regarded as a certification that the particular product is produced as per traditional methods, has certain specific qualities, or has a particular reputation because of its geographical origin.
Geographical indications are typically used for wine and spirit drinks, foodstuffs, agricultural products, handicrafts, and industrial products.
GI Tag ensures that none other than those registered as authorized users are allowed to use the popular product name. In order to function as a GI, a sign must identify a product as originating in a given place.
Who accords and regulates Geographical Indications?
Geographical Indications are covered as a component of intellectual property rights (IPRs) under the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property. At the International level, GI is governed by the World Trade Organisation’s (WTO’s) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). In India, Geographical Indications registration is administered by the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999 which came into force with effect from September 2003. The first product in India to be accorded with GI tag was Darjeeling tea in the year 2004-05.
Benefits of GI Tags
The Geographical Indication registration confers the following benefits:
- Legal protection to the products
- Prevents unauthorised use of GI tag products by others
- It helps consumers to get quality products of desired traits and is assured of authenticity
- Promotes the economic prosperity of producers of GI tag goods by enhancing their demand in national and international markets
Along with the benefits, there are certain issues associated with GI tags as well. Off late, there has been a rise in disputes over the question of the place of origin of the product under consideration. This gets aggravated due to a lack of clear historical evidence.
For example, the disputes surrounding the origin of Roshogulla, a popular dessert, from eastern India. Both West Bengal and Odisha claim that the dessert originated in their own states. By ‘winning’ a GI tag, each state is looking to promote its own cultural and regional jingoism over the other.
As a point of discussion, this sort of unhealthy competition tends to polarise the country on regional, cultural and linguistic lines. Most states in their rush to corner as many GI tags as possible have forgotten to pay attention to enhance the value of products already having a GI tag.
As a result, neither the local community nor the customer is benefitting economically. This trend undercuts the very idea of GI protection to native endemic products.
Significance of GI Tags
A geographical indication right facilitates those who have the right to use the indication to prohibit its usage by a third party whose product does not conform to the applicable standards.
For example, in the purview in which the Darjeeling geographical indication is protected, producers of Darjeeling tea can omit the term “Darjeeling” for tea not grown in their tea gardens or not produced according to the norms set out in the code of practice for the geographical indication.
However, a protected GI does not permit the holder to forbid someone from making a product using the same approaches as those set out in the standards for that indication. Protection for a GI tag is usually procured by acquiring a right over the sign that constitutes the indication.
Role of GI in Rural Development
Geographical indications are mostly traditional products, produced by rural communities over generations that have gained prominence on the markets for their precise qualities.
The recognition and protection of the markets of these products allow the producers’ community to devote and maintaining the precise qualities of the product on which the reputation is built. This might also allow them to invest together in promoting the reputation of the product.
Some of the observed rural development impacts of GI are:
- The supply chain is structured around a common product reputation
- Increased and stabilised prices for the GI product
- Distributed through all the levels of the supply chain adds value
- Natural resources can be preserved on which the product is based
- Preservation of traditions and traditional expertise
- Tourism can be boosted
Geographical Indications Protection
Geographical indications are protected and preserved in various countries and regional systems through a wide array of approaches and often using a consolidation of two or more approaches.
There are three major ways to protect a geographical indication:
- So-called sui generis systems (i.e. special regimes of protection)
- Using collective or certification marks
- Techniques concentrating on business practices, including administrative product approval schemes
These approaches have been developed in consonance with different legal practices and within a framework of individual historical and economic conditions.
The approaches to protect GI comprise differences with respect to critical questions like conditions for protection or the scope of protection. On the other hand, the two modes of protection mentioned above namely sui generis systems and collective or certification mark systems, share some common characteristics, such as the fact that they set up rights for collective use by those who comply with defined standards.
Way Forward for GI
- The tag for geographical indications needs to be allotted only after a thorough historical and empirical inquiry.
- For products whose origin can’t be effectively traced, either both the states should be given ownership or none of the regions is provided with the GI tag.
- The focus of the states and the community needs to shift from mere certification for the sake of region and instead divert all resources towards active promotion of the product and its respective industry.
Summary of Geographical Indications in India
- Geographical Indications of Goods are defined as that aspect of industrial property, which refers to the geographical indication referring to a country or to a place situated therein as being the country or place of origin of that product.
- Under Articles 1 (2) and 10 of the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, geographical indications are covered as an element of IPRs.
- Typically, the GI tag conveys an assurance of quality and distinctiveness which is essentially attributable to the fact of its origin in that defined geographical locality, region or country.
- They are also covered under Articles 22 to 24 of the TRIPS -Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Agreement, which was part of the Agreements concluding the Uruguay Round of GATT negotiations.
- Promoters of Geographical indications regard them as strong tools for protecting their national property rights. Opponents, however, consider GI as a barrier to trade.
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